Qlaŋga


Letters

Here are the transcriptions of the letters that are used in Qlaŋga. The letters listed first are the preference:

  • a: This is the only pure vowel. Prounce it like the a in 'father'.
  • b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, w, y, z: Pronounce these like you would in English at the beginning of a word.
  • š or c: This is the sh sound in 'ship'.
  • ĝ: This is a softer, voiced version of the hard kh sound in words like 'loch'.
  • ž or j: This is the sound the ge makes in the word 'garage'.
  • ll or ł: Jam your tongue against the roof of your mouth and blow out. This sounds like a whistled h with a small l sound after it. A similar sound is used in Welsh.
  • ŋ: This is like the ng in 'sing' except that it is used at the beginning of the word. There's a nice link to a presentation of this at http://www.kli.org/tlh/sounds.html; go down and click on the underlined 'ng' near the middle.
  • q: Point your tongue backward and make a k sound. It should sound different from the standard k sound.
  • r or ř or : A rolled r, like in Spanish. (Should be r tilde, but I can't find that.)
  • ŧ: The soft th sound as in 'thin'.
  • Ŧ: The hard th sound as in 'this'.
  • x: The hard kh sound in words like 'loch'.
  • ': A glottal stop; this basically means to stop your vowel abruptly and go on to the next one.
  • ʘ or o: This is a bilabial click. What you have to do here is put your lips together and then pull them apart with force, which will make a kissing sound. With practice you can put a vowel after it.

Qlaŋga is composed of distinct syllables, each beginning with one or more consonants or half-consonants and usually ending with a vowel. The last and third-to-last (etc.) syllables of each word are accented more. The + sign, when placed at the end, negates the final vowel and makes the last syllable end in a consonant or consonant cluster. For example, mana is two syllables, while man+ or mana+ is one.

Qlaŋga does have its own writing system, but for now I'm too lazy to put up pictures or anything so you'll just have to go with the transcriptions.


Grammar

Qlaŋga has the VSO (verb, subject, object) order as opposed to English's SVO (subject, verb, object) order. What this means is that a typical sentence starts with a verb, then has the subject, then has the object:
Fna gma balla daža oaya.
  Not can   help   I    you.
  I can't help you.

Verbs are not conjugated, ever. Verbal adverbs (see below) are used for the purpose of tenses, and there is no distinction made between singular and plural subjects and between 1st-person, 2nd-person, and 3rd-person.

There are two types of adverbs: verbal and descriptive. Verbal adverbs are adverbs like 'can' (gma) or 'would' (vda) and come before the verb; descriptive adverbs are like 'quickly' or 'tomorrow' and come after the verb. Notice that 'not' (fna) is also a verbal adverb. There are five verb tenses (past, present, future, imperative, infinitive) and they are represented with verbal adverbs.

There are also two types of objects, as in English: the direct and indirect. The direct object comes first, and if there is no direct object the indirect must be referenced with 'to' ('a) or another preposition.

Adjectives exist for all nouns and are placed before the subject or objects in any order. 'The' and 'a' are not used; in place of 'the' there is 'this' (xala) or 'that' (hala), and 'any' (lama) or 'one' (faša) is used in place of 'a'.


Lexicon


--- B ---
balla - to help
--- P ---
paŧa - to go
--- D ---
daša - should
daža - I
dzya - child, childlike
--- T ---
tafa - to do
thana - to be born
tmaoa - logic
tšafa - to love
tšakra - ice, cold, coldness
--- F ---
faranža - French, France
faša - one, a
fna - not
--- V ---
valaš+ - enslaved
fna valaš+ - free
vda - would
vra'a - to read
--- G ---
gagaga - equal, equally, equality
gma - able to
--- K ---
kahta - to listen
kaĝa - young adult, teenager, young
knata - hello
krava - to write
kxata - cat, feline
--- Q ---
qalla - goodbye
qamna - human
qaxa - old, old person
qlaŋga - grammar; Qlaŋga
qra - must
--- H ---
hala - that
hlaŧa - to need
--- L ---
lama - any, a
lyawa - place, location, area
--- LL ---
llakla - stairs
--- M ---
magala - villain
manama - hero
--- N ---
na - of
napala - fire, flame, heat, hot
natya - to have
ndaqa - treatment
--- Ŋ ---
ŋadpa - dignity, dignified
ŋava - adult
--- R ---
ra - to be
raŦa - brother, brotherly
--- S ---
stšala - bag, satchel
sqa - that which, what, who, whom
--- Š ---
šaza - but
--- ŧ ---
--- Ŧ ---
--- W ---
wa - at, in
--- Ĝ ---
--- X ---
xala - this
--- Y ---
yahla - moral
--- Z ---
znada - table
--- Ž ---
žaša - chair
--- ' ---
'a - to
'at+ - and
'ava - female
'ama - friend
'aŦa - male
'a'a - rock, stone
--- O ---
oamoa - to kiss
oaya - you