Gaxtal Grammar

Throughout this page, words in italics are in Gaxtal, not English.


a is pronounced as in 'pot.'
e is pronounced as in 'pet.'
i is pronounced as in 'meet.'
o is pronounced as in 'Rome.'
u is pronounced as in 'food.'
y is pronounced as in 'pit.'

b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, w, and z are pronounced like in English.
c is a ch sound, like in 'church.'
g is always hard like in 'guard.'
h does not change sounds - it is always a sound like in the beginning of 'house.'
j is always a dge sound like in 'dodge.'
q is a sound like the French r. There is no English equivalent.
r is a sound in between r and d. It is used in Japanese, but not in English.
x is a hard sound used in German and Hebrew. There is not an equivalent sound in common English.


Verb tenses (example verb: likna, to like):
  • Present: lik. This is the stem of the verb.
  • Past: likno. To form the past, add the suffix -no.
  • Future: liknu. To form the future, add the suffix -nu.
  • Infinitive: likna. To form the infinitive, add the suffix -na.
  • Present Participle, Gerund: liknan (having). To form this, add the suffix -nan.
  • Imperative: liknu. This is the same as in the future, but the suffix must either not exist or be vu or val. To say 'Like this!' one must say 'You are going to like this' or vu liknu li. The pronoun can be dropped, for liknu li.
To negate a verb, use the word non between the subject and the verb.


There are six personal pronouns in Gaxtal. They are:
1st Personynuz
2nd Personvuval
3rd Personlilei

In the third person, there is no differentiation between male (he, his), female (she, hers), and object (it, its). Also, possessives, and both subjective and objective cases, use the same word. If there is any confusion with possessive form, it is permissible to use the word onbai before the pronoun to make possessive. His animal would be et emal onbai li.


There are only a few prepositions. The preposition hin handles almost every case where something is inside of something. It also can express place or time. The preposition awen means 'with' normally, but can also be used to mean: using, having, of, or in the direction of. Losen is another preposition used to indicate something that is close; it is used as 'near' or 'towards.' The two contrasting prepositions pelys and vanyt mean, respectively, 'after' and 'before.'


Adverbs are used before the verb. The negation adverb, non, is always used before every other adverb, right after the subject. The most important adverb is probably kan, meaning 'is allowed to' or 'can.'


Nouns are quite simple in Gaxtal. They go through no changes in any way; to pluralize a word the word i is added after it. For example, one animal is emal and two or more animals is emal i.


There are quite a few numbers in Gaxtal. The numbers, one through ten, are eno; dok; tyr; lit; vif; zex; zet; gei; nin; dex.